Helsinki Citizens' Assembly-Vanadzor

The situation of labor rights։ Sociological study

July 10, 2024

Labor Rights | Activities | Library | Reports|Information Papers|Brochures | Rights | Joint | Publications

In the frame of “Decent Work Now” project, the APR Group NGO carried out four sociological studies aimed at identifying the general situation of labor rights of the population in the RA. The baseline studies were carried out among 1062 employees in 2021 and 138 employers in 2022. In the frame of the project, it was envisaged to make the final surveys based on the same principle, however, in the context of processes that took place in 2023, the project team found it more purposeful to use the opportunity to study employment issues and labor rights situation of persons forcibly displaced from Nagorno-Karabakh. The last two surveys (concluding study) were carried out in February and May 2024 among 1200 persons forcibly displaced from Nagorno-Karabakh. Thus, a total of 2400 quantitative interviews were conducted in the frame of the project.

 

The study results are summed up below:

  • 81․9% of the baseline study respondents are in formal employment relations with employers: they have an employment or service provision contract or started working based on an order. The situation is the same for 60.8% among persons forcibly displaced from NK. 31.7% of persons forcibly displaced from NK work without a written contract, while 6.6% are self-employed.

  • Worktime of 40.4% of the baseline study respondents amounts to 8 hours a day, while 35.7%-36.9% of respondents specified 8-hour work duration in the frame of the concluding study. Interestingly, the number of employees working up to 8 hours is 8% bigger in the second phase of the concluding study as compared to the baseline study, and in addition, the number of employees working more than 12 hours is 4% bigger. 

  • 84.7% of respondents were employed in NK, and 42.9% (515 persons) were employed in Armenia. 47.9% of those employed in NK worked in state institutions (government structure, educational and health institutions), 21.4% were employed in security agencies, law enforcement system, while 10.8% of respondents worked in medium or large local organizations. Those engaged in these spheres in Armenia amount to 20.6% (state), 3.3% (security) and 59.6% (medium or large local organizations) respectively. 

  • Perceptions of remuneration proportional to the performed work differ. During the baseline survey, 59.4% of respondents mentioned that their work and remuneration generally correspond to one another, while 40% of respondents mentioned this correspondence during the concluding survey. 76.5% gave a positive answer to the question whether their work and remuneration corresponded in Artsakh. About 70% of participants of the concluding survey mentioned that they received smaller remuneration in the RA as compared to Artsakh, while about 35% of respondents (+-3%) worked in the same field and position.  

  • 87.2% of the baseline survey respondents,  81.2% of the first stage respondents and 86.4% of the second stage respondents of the concluding survey are content with work time and rest conditions. 21.7% of respondents note that they have discussed the issue of work time and rest duration with their employer and achieved a satisfying resolution, 6.6% note that they have discussed the issue but have not achieved a satisfying resolution (essentially those are respondents who mentioned in the previous question that they were not satisfied with their work time and rest duration at all). Respondents’ sex, age, marital status, and dependent children do not have a significant impact on satisfaction with work time and rest conditions.Satisfaction is formed by work conditions wherein an individual works. Employees working more than 8 hours a day have mentioned  that they are not satisfied with work time and rest conditions more than those who work 8 hours a day. 20% of  the baseline survey respondents mentioned “yes” and “yes, sometimes” to the question whether they have ever had  any dissatisfaction with their working conditions. The same answers were given by 17.4% of the concluding survey respondents. While only 82.2% and 53.6% of those who have ever had dissatisfaction respectively answered “yes” to the question whether they have ever voiced their dissatisfaction.  This means that persons forcibly displaced from NK to Armenia tend to manifest more adaptability and get used to working conditions.

  • 7.2% of the baseline survey respondents mention that they do overtime work on a daily basis, while 48.4% mention that they never do overtime work. Further, payment for overtime work is provided to only 28.4% of those who ever do it. The following is the picture we get around these questions during the concluding survey: 10.5% do overtime work almost daily, 53.6% never do overtime work. 40.8% of those who ever do overtime work get paid for it.

  • 5.3% (baseline) and 6.8% (concluding) of respondents work in shifts, 24 hours a day. Among respondents of the baseline survey, 53.9% of those doing night time work mention that they receive compensation, 39.2% have never received compensation. During the concluding survey, those numbers were 27.1% and 42.4% respectively. 

  • 15.3% of the baseline survey respondents and 23.1% of the concluding survey respondents note that they almost always work on weekends/holidays. These respondents are mainly from the wholesale or retail sector or are self-employed. Only 20.0% and 17.5% respectively note that they get additional payment for it. 

  • In terms of actions aimed at maintenance of employees’ health, respondents mention the condition of undergoing annual medical examination. 80.9% of the baseline survey respondents and 28.7% of the concluding survey respondents have taken annual health insurance. Notably, not more than 18% of the concluding survey respondents and 23.7% of the baseline survey respondents answered “high” and “very high” to the question “Do/did your working conditions have dangerous or harmful factors for health?”.     

  • Employers’ attitude towards employees is predominantly formulated as “respectful”, “friendly” and “businesslike”, leaving "indifferent" and "discriminating" options within statistical error, and the percentage weight of these categories is almost the same for both baseline and concluding surveys. Nonetheless, it should be noted that when speaking about reasons why they no longer work, 3.3% of the concluding survey respondents chose the option “ill-treatment by the employer”. 

  • The practice of expressing dissatisfaction with working conditions is notably less common among respondents who are persons forcibly displaced from NK. 82.2% of the baseline survey respondents and only 53.6% of the concluding survey respondents have ever expressed dissatisfaction. Only 45% of respondents had their issue completely or partially solved. Interestingly, among reasons for not expressing their dissatisfaction (for those who had dissatisfaction but did not express it), the option “nothing will change” has almost the same distribution for both surveys, while in case of persons forcibly displaced from NK, the option “such an approach is not accepted” is more common by 7%.

  • 28.3% of the baseline survey respondents mention about existence of a trade union at workplace. Interestingly, only 7.2% of the concluding survey respondents mention about the existence of a trade union. Half of the baseline survey respondents attach importance to the role of trade unions as material and spiritual support (presents, participation in events, an opportunity to have more affordable recreation). Only 10.9% of them mention that it is a means to restore violated rights, 4.5% mention that it provides free consultation, 4.1% mention that it gives them a sense that they are not alone. Notably, 14.2% of the baseline survey respondents mention that trade unions do not provide anything, while 9.0% find it difficult to answer what a trade union membership gives them at all. As for the concluding study, both awareness of trade unions and the level of participation are low. Only 13.6% out of 7.2% of respondents aware about trade unions are a member thereof. 

  • Interestingly, a certain optimistic change in the opinions of the respondents is noticeable between the 2 phases of the concluding study. About 30% of respondents in the first phase of the survey said that they would go  abroad to work when asked what they would do if they could not find a job in the coming months. This answer was given by about 19% of respondents of the second phase of the concluding study. This approach is common in case of other questions as well. 28% of the first stage respondents and 37.2% of the second stage respondents answered “it will get better” when asked “According to you, how will your family’s situation change in the coming years?”. 

 

Based on the study results, recommendations will be developed aimed at the need for raising awareness about labor rights among employees and strengthening non-judicial protection mechanisms, as well as ensuring employment of persons forcibly displaced from NK and increasing effectiveness of their integration projects.

views: 22

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Feedback

Select the relevant connection

  • Font size
    A A A
  • Font
    arial verdana tahoma
  • Thickness
    regular light bold
  • Spacing
    1px 2px 3px
  • Color scheme
    Black on a white background White on a black background
  • Background color
  • Text color